What are Brain Disorders? How are Brain Disorders Diagnosed?

An overview of Brain Disorders

Brain disorders are conditions or disabilities that affect how the brain functions. The nervous system includes the brain, the spinal cord, and the nerves. If it’s healthy and working well, your brain will not face any problems. 

However, when the nervous system goes through specific reasons, it can profoundly impact the brain’s functioning. This may need intervention by a famous neurologist in Coimbatore. Any dysfunction in the nervous system gives rise to Brain Disorders or diseases.

These Brain Disorders can affect several things, including memory, sensation, and your personality.

Brain Disorders are generally caused by:

  • Illness
  • Genetics
  • Trauma
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Malnutrition
  • Environmental reasons

Types of Brain Disorders

The various types of Brain Disorders are listed below.

Autoimmune Diseases

A list of autoimmunity-related diseases is below:

  • Autoimmune encephalitis
  • Epilepsy related to autoimmunity
  • Central nervous system vasculitis
  • Hashimoto’s encephalopathy
  • Multiple sclerosis

Autoimmune diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis or MS are diseases in which your body’s immune system attacks the nerve covering tissue known as myelin. It causes interference with neural communication between your brain and body.


There are several types of dementia such as frontotemporal dementia, Lewy Body Dementia, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer’s. People with dementia lose their cognitive abilities and their functional abilities. Furthermore, it makes the patient lose independence.

Autism and Neural Development Diseases

Autism spectrum disorder is a condition that affects the patient’s ability to communicate.

Typically, the symptoms of Autism appear during the first two years of life. These symptoms include social awkwardness, poor verbal and nonverbal communication, obsession, and repetitive behavior. Some other neurodevelopmental disorders include:

  • Hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD

Movement Disorders

Movement Disorders to need a checkup at the best hospital in Coimbatore. Such movement issues include Parkinson’s disease ataxias, tremors, dystonia, tics, and Tourette. These disorders often progress to a complete loss of function.

In addition, movement disorders cause tremors, imbalance, speech impairment, and many more. For example, the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells causes Parkinson’s disease. There is no cure for these disorders. However, treatment helps relieve the symptoms.

Brain Injuries

The majority of these injuries are caused by blunt force trauma to the head. The trauma can damage tissues, neurons, and nerves. Thus, it hampers your brain’s ability to communicate effectively with the rest of the body. The symptoms of Brain Injuries include nausea, speech impairment, vomiting, paralysis, memory loss, and trouble concentrating. Examples of Brain Injuries are:

  • Hematomas
  • Blood clotting
  • Contusion
  • Concussion
  • Stroke

Mental Disorders

Mental disorders are diseases that affect your behavioral pattern. These include:

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD
  • Schizophrenia
  • Bipolar Disorder

Consult a doctor immediately if you notice a sudden change in behavior pattern, mood, or thought process. Treatment for mental disorders is available in two forms, namely, medication and psychotherapy.

Brain Tumors

Brain tumors are of two types:

  • Primary Brain Tumor
  • Secondary Brain Tumor (Metastatic Brain Tumor)

When tumors form in the brain, they are known as primary brain tumors, whereas when cancer in other parts of the body spreads to the brain, it is known as a secondary Brain tumor.

Brain Tumor can be malignant or cancerous and benign or noncancerous. The size and location of the tumour determine the symptoms of a brain tumour. These symptoms include

  • Headaches
  • Seizures
  • Numbness in body
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of balance
  • Sensory impairment


Meningitis and encephalitis can also cause brain diseases. Meningitis is the infection in the lining around the brain, whereas encephalitis is the infection in the brain tissue. Generally, these two infections occur together. These brain infections can be a threat to your life if you don’t undergo the proper treatment. The symptoms include:

  • Neck stiffness
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Confusion

How are Brain Disorders Diagnosed?

To diagnose a brain disorder, you should consult a famous neurological specialist in Coimbatore. Generally, your doctor will perform CAT, MRI, and PET scans to diagnose the disorder. However, diagnosis of Mental Disorders is made through evaluation of psychological symptoms and history.  

Different types of Brain Disorders require different methods of diagnosis. To know about Brain Disorders diagnosis, read below.

For Brain Tumor

Diagnosis is made through:

  • Physical examination
  • Skull x-rays
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the head
  • Biopsy
  • Pupil Dilation test
  • Angiography

For Mental Disorders

Diagnosis is made through:

  • Physical examination
  • Lab tests
  • Psychological evaluation through psychotherapy sessions

For Brain Injuries

Diagnosis is made through:

  • Glasgow Coma Scale: It is a primary assessment to test the patient’s consciousness after the impact of the injury.
  • Computerized Tomography (CT) Scan: A series of X-rays that generates a detailed view of the brain to allow detecting brain hemorrhages, contusions, concussions, and inflammation.
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses powerful radio waves that generate an in-depth view of the brain.
  • Intracranial pressure monitoring to assess the extent of swelling in the tissues.

Based on the diagnosis, the neurologist in Coimbatore may recommend a head operation or other such procedures to treat injuries.

Wrapping up

Brain Disorders are generally treatable. However, some brain diseases do not have a cure yet. Thanks to the recent advancements in the medical sector, there is an excellent scope for better treatment facilities in the future. Improving lifestyle and incorporating a healthy diet will help you fight these severe disorders.

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